Klasifikasi Antibiotik Dengan Efek Samping Umumnya

Antibiotics

Antibiotik adalah obat yang umumnya diresepkan oleh dokter untuk mengobati, mencegah dan menyembuhkan gangguan menular termasuk malaria, tifus, diare dan lain-lain. Setiap jenis obat juga memiliki beberapa efek samping mewarisi, seseorang bisa menderita atau kambuh lagi setelah asupan obat tersebut berhenti. Berikut adalah klasifikasi antibiotik dengan  beberapa efek samping umumnya.

Pustaka:

  • Goodman Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics 11TH Edition (2006) Chapter 43, 44, 45, 46 & 47
  • Lippincott’s illustrated reviews Pharmacology 5th Edition (Richard A. Harvey)
Sr# Therapeutic Class Example of Drugs Side Effects
1.1

 

 

 

 

 

1.2

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

 

CEPHALOSPORINS(First Generation)

 

 

 

 

(Second Generation)

 

 

 

 

 

(Third Generation)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Forth Generation)

Cefadroxil Cephalexin Cephradine Cefazolin

Cephalothin

Cephapirin

 

 

 

Cefaclor

Cefprozil

Cefoxitin

Cefuroxime

Cefmetazole

 

Cefixime

Ceftriaxone

Cefotaxime

Moxalactam

Ceftazidime

Cefoperazone

 

 

Cefepime

 

Rashes Diarrhea Nausea/vomiting Hypersensitivity reactions

Serum Sickness

Vaginal  candiasis

Granulocytopenia

Anaphylaxis

 

 

2 SULFONAMIDES Sulfadiazine Sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethizole Sulfisoxazole

Sulfacytine

Sulfadoxine

 

Anorexia, Diarrhea, Photosensitivity, Headache, Abdominal Pain, Dizziness, Crystalurea,Hemolytic & Aplastic Anaemia,Steven’s Johnson Syndrome,Stomatitis, Polyarteritis Nodosa,

Exfoliative Dermatitis, Urtecaria

3 MACROLIDES Erythromycin Azithromycin Clarithromycin

Dirithromycin

Spiramycin

Epigastric distress, Diarrhea,Cholestatic jaundice, Anorexia,Ototoxicity, Hepatotoxicity

 

4 QUINOLONES Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Moxifloxacin

Ofloxacin

Enoxacin

Norfloxacin

Photosensitivity, Insomnia,Pruritus, Blurred vision,Tinnitus, Diarrhea,

Nausea/vomiting, Headache

55.1

5.2

 

 

 

 

 

5.3

 

 

 

5.4

 

 

 

PENICILLINS(Natural)
(Pencillinase -Resistant Penicillins)
(Aminopenicillins)
(Extended Spectrum Penicillins)
Penicillin GPenicillin V

 

Cloxacillin

Oxacillin

Methicillin

Nafcillin

 

 

Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Bacampicillin

 

 

Piperacillin

Ticarcillin

Mezlocillin

 

 

Hypersensitivity reactions, Diarrhea,

Nephritis, Neurotoxicity,

Hematologic toxicity, Cation toxicity,

Diarrhea,  Abdominal pain,

Drug fever, rash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 TETRACYCLINES Tetracycline Doxycycline Minocycline Lymecycline

Oxytetracycline

Gastric discomfort, Fatal hepatotoxicity, Phototoxicity, Superinfections, Effects on calcified tissues, Anorexia, Diarrhea, Tooth discoloration
7 AMINOGLYCOSIDES Gentamycin Tobramycin Amikacin

Kenamycin

Neomycin

Streptomycin

Netilmicin

Ototoxicity, Nephrotoxicity,Neuromuscular paralysis, Allergic reactions, Renal toxicity, Nystagmus
8 MISCELLANEOUS Metronidazole Nausea/vomiting, dizziness, Headache,Vaginal candiasis
9 LINCOSAMIDE Clindamycin Lincomycin Pseudomembranous colitis, Diarrhea, Rash, Hypersensitivity, Jaundice
10 GLYCOPEPTIDES Vancomycin Telavacin Phelibitis, Taste alteration, Nausea/vomiting, Headache, Dizziness
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